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      2. 七夕節俗傳統的傳承與創新

         

        作者:蕭放 添加日期:18年08月17日 點擊數:

         

                導語:又到一年七夕節,街邊的各大商家早早的就已經打出“中國情人節”的招牌,除了作為表達愛情的契機,中國古代的人們又是定位七夕節的?在當下七夕又是如何在傳統中傳承和創新的呢?

                 七夕是一個有著悠久歷史的傳統節日,它萌芽于春秋戰國,成型于漢魏,興盛于唐宋,明清成為一般性節日。今天七夕節的興盛,既有傳統節日復興的大勢催動,也有直接針對社會文化變化的需要,它適應了兩性生活協調的要求,它體現了傳統節日在當代社會的創造性轉化與創新性發展的可能與趨向。 

                 七夕節俗的主題經歷了星辰祭祀、幸福乞求、人間競巧等歷史變化。七夕從總體上看,是一個女性節日,它關聯著女性的心靈與身體。不可否認近年來七夕節的重新活躍大約與兩種因素有關系,第一是直接因素,是為了應對外來節日的挑戰;第二是深層的社會原因,在平等、開放的社會里,人們希望有自由表達情感的社會時間,需要這樣的人際交往的節日。 

                 七夕節是全球化過程中中國節日重振的典型之一,它直接應對的是西方的情人節。明清以來七夕是一般性節日,在傳統社會生活中地位并不突出。20 世紀末葉以來,西方節慶文化進入中國,對追新慕異的年輕人很有吸引力,情人節受到年輕人的追捧。受到西方節日的啟發,或者是為了應對這種情況,人們發現中國傳統的七夕節中有兩情相悅的節日元素,于是對七夕進行改造,有意識地遺忘乞巧節俗,而擴張男女相會的節俗傳說,提出七夕為中國情人節或愛情節的說法。2005年,有全國政協委員提議將七夕定為中國的情侶節。這些看法反映了人們利用傳統節日倡導民族文化、服務當代社會的態度。同時一些熱衷傳統文化的年輕人,以牛郎織女的愛情故事印證他們愛情的忠貞,以七夕作為他們表達情愛的機會。 

                 但是這些以兩性交往為七夕主題的節日改造對于純正的傳統七夕節來說是有偏差的,因為在傳統七夕中是以乞巧為主的,所有活動圍繞女性之“巧”及對未來美好生活祈求展開。這些傳統節日習俗在漢魏六朝之后,是節日的主題。在一些地區七夕還成為成人節,在七夕舉行標準的或類似成年禮的通過儀式。如浙江石塘的小人節、甘肅隴南西和的乞巧節,分別代表了南北兩個地區在傳統七夕舉行的男女成年儀禮。 

                  七夕作為傳統的女性節日,在當代社會要適應時代變化的需要,既傳承歷史文化傳統,也要更新變革部分節俗內容。具體建議如下: 

                 一、復興傳統乞巧內涵、重視手工實踐 

                 乞巧是傳統七夕的重要內容,七夕乞巧活動主要強調人們的心靈手巧,傳統的方式是對月穿針、水上漂針、撒花瓣、種巧芽、鏤花瓜、做巧果、結彩樓,以種種手工活動顯示人們的聰慧與智巧。當代社會雖然在乞巧形式上不一定追求古制,但我們可效法古意,利用七夕節日調動人們對手工技藝的興趣,以巧藝展示與巧技競賽的方式激發青少年的創造欲望與創造動力,同時也是心智的磨煉,人們在技巧的比試過程中鍛煉自己的思維能力與動手能力。在人人都想當科學家的時代,我們不妨提倡具體而微的手工技藝的學習,以適應社會經濟文化建設的實踐需要。將七夕節作為傳承技藝傳統、倡導重視技藝實踐的民俗節日,結合中小學教學中的手工課與課外興趣教學活動開展七夕乞巧的展示與競賽,如手工小制作、美術作品、小的技術發明、電腦動畫、程序設計等等。 

                二、傳揚牛郎織女傳說,強調愛情忠貞

                 將七夕作為兩性交往的時機與兩性倫理、情感教育的特別時間。七夕節因為有牛郎織女鵲橋相會的傳說,被認為是中國的愛情節,兩情相悅與相互守望是七夕的主題之一。七夕節俗中強調男女的彼此欣賞,為青年男女的正常交往提供時機與空間,比如在河南魯山七夕舉辦男女聯誼的游園會等就是傳統民俗的新表現;同時七夕也強調人們對感情的忠貞,這種忠貞經受著時間流逝與空間分隔的考驗。在社會急劇變化,人口廣泛流動的今天,人們的情感生活面臨著比傳統社會更大的挑戰,一方面兩性交往合作的機會增多,人們面臨的情感困擾也隨之增長;另一方面由于學習與工作的原因,情侶常常分隔兩地。在這樣的社會境遇面前,七夕所承載的牛郎織女矢志不渝的愛情傳說有著重要的現實意義。 

                三、傳承七夕成年禮俗,增強社會團結,  活躍與豐富地方民俗生活

                 傳統七夕在一些地方具有女性成年禮的意涵,作為少女到成年女性的通過儀式,它是道德、情感、心智、技藝獲得增進與提升的重要時機,也是女性身份認同與角色意識增強的特殊階段。在當今社會,女性成長過程中,也同樣需要這樣一個成年儀式。女性的情感與技藝智慧同樣需要集體生活的養育與催化,七夕成年禮就是一個完整的可以借鑒的集體通過儀式。我們借助這樣的民俗傳統自然而然地將年輕女性納入我們的社會生活之中。當代隴南西和的七夕乞巧活動的主力是中學生,在成年女性的指導幫助下,她們完成坐巧、迎巧、祭巧、拜巧、娛巧、送巧各項儀式,這對于十幾歲的女孩子來說,就是一個人生成長的重要過程。我們只要有意識地將成年規訓、成年的責任義務、成年的生活技能貫徹在儀式與演唱活動之中,我們就能很好地實現傳統儀式的現代轉換,從而達到傳統文化遺產與當代社會生活的和諧傳承。  (原文發表于 《中國藝術報》,2017年8月25日。  )

        作者簡介

        蕭放:北京師范大學中國社會管理研究院/社會學院教授、中國民俗學會副會長、中國民間文藝家協會理事

        文章來源:中國藝術報 

         
          

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