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      2. 非物質文化遺產保護理論實踐國際研討會暨暑校專題講座之五: 分析地理環境對藏族飲食文化的影響——以西藏自治區的藏族為例

         

        作者:劉雋敏 添加日期:17年09月20日 點擊數:

         

               時間:2017年7月22日上午

          地點:內蒙古呼倫貝爾學院圖書館三樓報告廳

          主講人:西藏大學地理系次仁央宗教授

          主持點評人:瑪吉·霍爾茨伯格(Maggie Holtzberg)教授

          記錄:劉雋敏

          供圖:馬千里

              青藏高原平均海拔4000米,被稱為“世界屋脊”。依據地理環境特征,青藏高原大致可分為三部分,分別為衛藏地區(以拉薩為中心的高原中央區)、康巴藏區(包括云南、四川等地)及安多藏區(高原北部牧區)。本次講座案例分析的來源為西藏自治區。

          西藏地區根據其自身的地形特征也可分為三部分。北部高海拔地區,氣候惡劣,氣溫較低,牧業占據主導地位;衛藏地區多河谷地帶,生產生活以農業為主;東部林芝地區海拔較低,多為濕潤半濕潤氣候,森林面積廣闊。

          西藏地區獨特的地域環境和自然資源造就了獨具特色的藏族飲食文化。在飲食結構上,糌粑、酥油茶、牦牛肉、奶渣和青稞酒等食物均占有重要地位。糌粑由青稞制成,是藏民最重要的傳統主食,一般與酥油、奶渣和酥油茶搭配食用,但不同地區的制作工藝和食用方法都略有不同。另外,當藏民需要長期在外勞作時,也會將糌粑制成不同形制的糕點,使之方便攜帶。牦牛是最具藏區特色的動物之一,也是藏民肉類食物的主要來源。除牦牛肉、牦牛舌、牦牛肝外,由牦牛奶制成的酥油更是藏民必不可少的食物。酥油茶由酥油與磚茶共同熬制而成,熱量較高,能夠幫助藏民有效地抵御嚴寒天氣,也能提供必要的維生素與礦物質。

          就具體地域而言,北部羌塘高原以肉食為主,牧民一日三餐均離不開肉類,奶制品、糌粑和茶也不可或缺。東部林區氣候溫暖濕潤,適宜蔬菜及菌類生長,搭配酥油和糌粑的烤蘑菇就是林芝地區的特色美食之一。除牛羊之外,藏香豬也是該地區獨特的牲畜,它們體型較小,肉質緊實,藏民們多于藏歷新年食用藏香豬肉。另外,由于林芝地區較為濕潤,易使人患風濕病和關節炎,當地居民多使用石鍋烹煮食物。這樣有助于對此類疾病的防治。衛藏農業區多種植小麥、青稞、大米、土豆和蘿卜等,如土豆包子、蘿卜燉羊肉等均為該地區的特色食物。隨著現代技術的引入,溫室與大棚也擴大了蔬菜種植的范圍。除酥油茶外,甜茶也為當地藏民所喜愛。

          值得注意的是,現代化進程給藏區飲食文化帶來了巨大的影響,如啤酒、可樂和方便面等食物已在當代藏區飲食結構中占有一席之地,但它們在為藏民帶去美味的同時也引發了一些健康問題。例如,傳統的酥油茶與糌粑可謂絕配。酥油茶能為藏民提供抗寒所需的熱量,而糌粑則可有效控制人體攝入的油脂,然而當下不少藏民的主食已不再是糌粑,而是方便面、漢堡和油條等。一旦失去了糌粑對油脂的調控,在上述新的主食基礎上繼續頻繁飲用酥油茶就會導致肥胖和血脂過高等危害。

          總體而言,整個西藏地區均處于高海拔地帶,不同區域在飲食文化上體現出大同中夾雜小異的特點,而將西藏地區的飲食文化與同處較高海拔的青海和內蒙古等地區進行對比分析則會是下一步的研究方向。

          講座結束后,參會人員與次仁央宗教授就相關話題展開了熱烈的討論。討論的問題包括藏區飲食的傳承與變遷、飲品在藏區飲食中的地位、宗教因素對藏區飲食文化的影響等。

        來源:中國民俗學網

          

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