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      2. 非物質文化遺產保護理論實踐國際研討會暨暑校專題講座之三: 日本民俗研究中的“鄉村”與“都市”

         

        作者:李廣 添加日期:17年09月20日 點擊數:

         

               時間:2017年7月20日下午

          地點:內蒙古呼倫貝爾學院圖書館三樓報告廳

          主講人:日本神戶女子大學川森博司教授

          主持點評人:迪姆·羅儀德教授

          記錄:李廣

          供圖:馬千里

          快速的現代化給日本的鄉村與城市之間造成了很多沖突。日本的民俗研究者聚焦鄉村社會,深刻研究了鄉村的生活與人居環境。此講座共分為五部分,主要聚焦于日本民俗學研究中所呈現的“鄉村”與“都市”。

          第一部分主要講述“20世紀初鄉村日本人的口述傳統”。在這一部分,川森博司教授既呈現了《源氏物語》中曾經對鄉村現實生活視而不見的現象,又介紹了柳田國男否認鄉村生活具有浪漫特征的觀點:“我希望這些傳說能夠震撼城市人。”之后,他又引述了幾則傳說來概述這種城市與鄉村之間的沖突與矛盾。

          第二部分敘述了對“農民文學”的評價。其中講到了諺語的作用——諺語是一種知識的傳播和農民所享有的語言藝術。在這一部分的內容中,川森博司教授同樣引用了柳田國男對農民諺語的評價:這些諺語是在日常生活中由普通人使用,而不只限于有知識的人。其后,他又講述了“鳥兒悲傷地唱歌”的故事,繼而談到由于對專業作者能力的過度信任,日本失去了夢想的權利,拋棄了熟悉的幻影。

          第三部分講述的是“現代化進程中的感覺轉換”。在其著作《明治和大正時期的生命階段》的第一章里,柳田國男就人們“興奮”的態度,對比了鄉村文化和城市文化。他認為在鄉土村落中,村民們感到興奮的時間非常短,往往只有短短的幾天;相反的是,“現代人總是處于某種程度的興奮狀態”。對比之下,川森博司教授認為本土思想趨于更加開放和自由,并不導致所謂的民族主義。

          第四部分講述的是“過渡時期的認識及都市民俗的發現”問題。川森博司教授首先引述了柳田國男的觀點:“我處于一個從適度距離看待城市與鄉村之間矛盾的位置,因為我雖然長久地在城市中生活,卻從未能夠完好地適應城市生活。”川森博司教授還引用了馬林諾夫斯基的觀點:“民族學處于一種悲哀而荒唐且近乎悲慘的境地,在那個非常時刻,當他開始整理其‘車間’,去鍛造適當的工具,開始準備完成其制定任務時,其研究材料卻無望而迅速地銷聲匿跡了。”另外,在這一部分他也提到了一些學者為了分析“城市居民心理的個人方面的原因”,從城市節慶、恐怖故事、江戶時代的散文、日記、電影和通俗小說中搜尋了不少資料。

          講座的最后一部分內容講述了“鄉村文化對都市居民的意義”。這一部分呈現出了大眾對鄉村社區的兩種互為矛盾的態度:其一是對鄉村生活寧靜、祥和與幸福的贊慕;其二是對艱苦、貧困與荒涼的鄉村生活及其環境的擔憂。這種矛盾的存在引發了解決這些問題的探索,例如通過某些途徑使勞動成為樂趣的藝術,從而穩定日常生活,使之成為提高消費者生活水平,連接大自然祝福與人類幸福的方法等。

          在講座的結尾環節,川森博司闡述了日本目前城市與鄉村的矛盾現狀。一方面,民眾需要扎根于某個地方,從而穩定日常生活;然而另一方面,民眾又無法扎根于日本民俗家一直予以熱切研究的鄉村社區,所以他們不得不以新的方式扎根于城市環境之中。

        川森博司教授

          演講結束后會議進入討論環節。與會者重點關注的問題主要包括產生于城市社會的“新民俗”以及處于城市邊緣的“郊區”民俗現象。內蒙古師范大學的敖其教授提出了所謂“新民俗”的問題。她提到在鄉村民俗向城市民俗轉變的背景下,由于受城市化的影響,城市社會中出現了“新民俗”這一新現象,并提出設問,即“這種所謂的新民俗,是否也需要引入民俗學的研究范疇?中國的‘雙十一’購物節,它只是一種社會現象抑或也可以拿來做民俗研究?”對此,敖其教授認為這只是一種新的社會現象,而不屬于新的民俗,“雙十一”購物節并非民俗節日。

        迪姆·羅儀德教授發言

          美國民俗學會執行理事長迪姆·羅儀德(Timothy Lloyd)教授提出了城市郊區的民俗問題。在他個人的研究中,羅儀德教授在美國觀察到了這一新的“民俗”現象。對此,呼倫貝爾學院的常海教授以呼倫貝爾幾個部落的情況為例,指出這些部落成員就是生活在這些城市郊區的“中間地帶”。他們在城市郊區已經生活了20年左右。從民俗的角度來看,新媒體的介入對文化的沖擊力度非常大。這些居民在年輕的時候常常一邊烤肉、吃肉,一邊聽故事,但如今這種現象基本上不存在了。這就是地域變遷給生活習俗帶來的影響。

          在中央民族大學蘇日娜教授看來,中國的大多數民俗學者主要關注的是特點較為鮮明的民俗活動。這些民俗活動呈現出民族性和地區性的特點。這是目前研究的主要方向。其它民俗學家的研究方向則傾向于家鄉民俗學,即對自己的家鄉進行民俗調查和研究。但現在這一研究的范圍正在擴大,并衍生出了一些分支學科,如生態民俗學和女性民俗學。民俗活動的變化導致了民俗研究相應的變化。

        中國民俗學會學員玉蘭做現場翻譯

        來源:中國民俗學網

          

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