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      2. 非物質文化遺產保護理論實踐國際研討會暨暑校專題講座之二: 價值與方法——鄉土社會的文化保護與可持續發展

         

        作者:李廣 添加日期:17年09月20日 點擊數:

         

               時間:2017年7月20日上午

          地點:內蒙古呼倫貝爾學院圖書館三樓報告廳

          主講人:文化部民族民間文藝發展中心主任李松

          主持點評人:蘇日娜教授

          記錄:李廣

          供圖:馬千里

          2017年7月20日上午,文化部民族民間文藝發展中心主任李松以價值觀為導向,介紹和解讀了中國鄉土社會的文化與可持續發展的問題。

          鄉土社會是非物質文化遺產的重要載體。講座第一部分以村落文化的價值為題,從三個方面對其展開了討論:人與自然和社會組織,人與社會和價值觀念,以及道德倫理層面。李松主任認為,從傳統節日中能夠認知社區傳統。他以《中國節日志》項目為例,進一步闡釋了對社區傳統的認知。《中國節日志》文本涉及節日綜述、志略、調查和圖表等內容,規劃出版150卷5000萬字。由于用于節日研究的時間長,涉及民族多,這本書的編訂有較大的難度。在選取節日時,項目側重于選擇有著悠久歷史傳統和文化內涵的民族節日。這從另一個側面也體現了中國民族節日數量多,類型豐富的特點。

          在論及選擇這一項目的原因時,李松主任從四個方面闡釋了如何理解中國傳統節日的四個特性,即神圣性、公共性、狂歡性和藝術性。

          中國的傳統節日基本都起源于祭祀,但這種性質在逐漸淡化,并且特別體現在中國傳統的大型節日中,例如春節和端午節等節日的神圣性就在不斷的淡化。此外,城市化也加劇了這一淡化的進程。城市化使得這些公共性節日逐漸向私人活動演變,例如小長假在很大程度上被人們用來過節,節日和假日兩個不同概念正在不斷融合。

          節日的藝術性在社會生活中則普遍得到加強。隨著非遺保護的理念和實踐的不斷深化,節日的藝術性更加明顯。一方面,我國大量的非遺項目是依托于傳統之上的,如果傳統節日類非遺中的傳統這一基礎消失了,那么很多這一類非遺項目的傳承必將遭到嚴峻挑戰。以侗族為例,侗族有三寶:風雨橋、鐘鼓樓和大鼓。中國人眼中的“寶”往往具有很強的物質屬性,如東北三寶(人參、貂皮和鹿茸)。相反,侗族這三寶卻完全是精神層面的,與物質屬性基本上沒有多大關系。另一方面,侗族民居的建筑文化特點體現為民居本身是共享的,不設防的。事實上,很多民間傳統都是以藝術形式表達出來的,比如風雨橋就是以建筑技藝來表達的。這種共享的社會機制一旦難以保存,其它保護工作都將難以進行。總之,任何文化或文明體系如果失去對自身文化傳統的深刻了解和認知,就失去了創新能力的基礎。

          在談到鄉村社會的文化保護和可持續發展的方法時,李松著重強調了對價值的理解與認識的重要性。如果對價值的了解不夠,對價值的認識有偏差,就會誤導實踐,繼而產生“丑陋的中國人公共空間的消失”。實踐的開展必須以正確的價值觀作為引導。在對傳統倫理的認知和使用方面,應該注意處理表面化、碎片化和污名化的關系。

          對于保護與發展的關系,李松提出了幾點可持續發展的原則:首先要尊重文化,要不斷地學習和理解文化的內涵;其次要注重公平發展,實現合謀共贏;第三要以人為本,達到自主內生的目的;最后要激活村落的公共性傳統,提升社區自我發展的能力,奠定文化傳承發展的社會基礎。

         

        李松主任準備回答提問

          現場提問及回答概況:

          問題1:

          問:“公共空間”與城市化有關,“公共空間”在城市中變得越來越小,在農村有沒有這樣的問題?

          :城市化進程中“公共空間”的消失是發展的必然,而現代化進程對農村發展的影響更大。在市場經濟的理念下,我國農村中很多不應該切割的東西被切割了。

          問題2:

          問:《中國節日志》項目在記錄的過程中主要集中收錄一些典型性的節日,這樣做的目的是什么?

          :第一,留下典籍;第二,節日數據庫向大眾公開,實行節日公開化和數據公開化,以便于民眾進一步了解我國典型節日。

          問題3:

          問:西方節日進入中國后,受到許多年輕人的追捧。這種現象是對中國節日的挑戰嗎?中國的年輕一代如何面對?

          :這不是挑戰,而是文化交流的過程。文化與交流不是對立,而是一種交融,我們應該更加開放包容。我們要做的是告訴民眾節日背后的真正意義,讓他們有自己的選擇,在交流融合的過程中創造出新的節日。這種現象同時也提醒我們思考一個問題,即在傳統文化向現代化轉化的過程中,是不是傳統的公共性的東西被關閉了,因而要追尋和創造一些新的東西。所以,我們為什么不可以在春節里設置游戲大賽呢?

        中國民俗學會學員做會議記錄

        來源:中國民俗學網

          

        打開微信掃描二維碼      [X]

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